Exhibition in the Prado Museum: The Furies. Of Tiziano to Bank
Exhibition in the Prado Museum: The Furies. Of Tiziano to Bank
It is known for Furies (or The Furies) to four personages proceeding from the Greco-Roman mythology that they defied the gods and were punished by its bravery. They are considered to be secondary personages, he is not star system of the mythology. Ticio was convicted to be devoured by the vultures for having tried to violate Latona lover of Zeus and mother of Apollo. Tántalo, son of Zeus and king of Lidia was punished, for having served to the gods, like banquet, to its son Pélope, to live plunged with the water up to the chin. Sísifo, founder and king of Corinth, was suffering with its rock on the back for having denounced the loves of Zeus with Egina. And Ixión, king of the Lapitas, was convicted to turn eternally in a wheel for having tried to seduce Hera.
They are the protagonists of the exhibition that is celebrated in the Prado Museum, from January 21 until May 4, under the title of The Furies. Of Tiziano to Bank. A sample that consists of twenty-eight works in different supports and signed by different artists of the XVIth and XVIIth centuries. They emphasize a drawing of Miguel Ángel and the paintings of Rubens, Tiziano, Bank, Rombouts, Glotzius, Assereto, Rose or Langetti. It is sponsored by the Foundation Friends of the Prado Museum.
The topic of The Furies had a very limited development, only approximately hundred fifty years. A period that it includes from the middle of the XVIth century up to the last years of the XVIIth. In contrast to other models, the case of The Furies is not an Italian "fashion" but it comes from the Netherlands, of the hand, fundamentally, of Maria de Hungría.
Maria de Habsburgo of Hungary (1505 – 1558), also known as Maria de Austria, was the third daughter of Felipe Beautiful, archduke of Austria and duke of Burgundy, and of Juana de Castilla (meet as Juana la Loca). Queen was a spouse of Hungary on having married Luis II of Hungary. In 1548, Maria de Hungría, entrusted Tiziano, for its Binche palace in the outskirts of Brussels, a series of linens with four mythological personages: Ticio, Tántalo, Sísifo and Ixión. An allegory to the German princes who had risen against its brother, the emperor Carlos V, and whom it had defeated one year earlier in the Mülhberg battle.
The exhibition turns about the Laoconte. The find, in 1506, of the sculptural group known as about the Laoconte in Rome belonging to the school of Rhodes, turned into the whole event. The way in which the pain is represented, the suffering and up to the death in every gesture or in every face of each of the components of this sculptural group it has served as inspiration to the future generations. But not only in the artists but also in the theoretical ones. They are great (so much artists, as the above mentioned) those that they consider, and they have considered this group to be the maximum example in the art and for extension with the excellent example in the representation of the pain in the art.
After the knowledge of the Laoconte and of The Furies the artists feel the need to dare with new challenges. On the one hand, that of representing its models in different attitudes and movements, and, for other, that of capturing the different frames of mind, as it is the case of the extreme pain.
Previously to the sculptural group, the precedents to these representations can be located in the epoch gigantomaquias helenística or the Low Middle Age. There are episodes of the Greek mythology that narrate bloody events between giants, titanium and Olympic gods. They are characterized by the representation of multiple personages with sometimes improbable foreshortenings. Two examples that have come up to us are a Fall of the Giants of Giulio Romano and Fall of the Giants of Perino del Vaga.
But these two do not reflect to any of the components of The Furies. As Miguel Falomir remembers us, now there is known a series of carpets known by The honors, woven about 1520 in Brusela for Peter van Aelst and that put themselves as regards Tiziano's linens. In one of them, dedicated to the Iustitia, in the top angle right turn out to be the figures of Ticio, Sísifo and Ixión.
Miguel Ángel was taking the classic statues as models to recreate the ancient myths. It realized a Ticio drawing in 1532.
These Furies were not conceived like an autonomous set, but they were realized to be part of everything. They would be part of an iconographic joint amount that would include paintings, carpets and sculptures opened in the call Big Room of the Palace of Binche in the outskirts of Brussels. About all the taste is known by the splendors of that epoch. Maria de Hungría did not hesitate to organize a series of refined diversions that were showing up the court luxury and the big power that it had. It is known that this palace had several apartments with different ambiences. In one of these apartments there would be this Big Room from which they would hang different carpets and Tiziano's linens.
Leaving aside the political load that it was meaning, The Furies constitute an exercise of virtuosity, a magisterial use of the clair-obscure one. The artists fascinated by the visualization of the suffering, strained in receiving the movements of maximum tension, with almost improbable foreshortenings in the naked bodies and with the pain reflex in its maximum expression. Its expressions are extreme. Most of the figures occupy almost the whole surface of the linen in battle with the screams that go out of its mouths. They transmit to the spectator the anguish that they suffer. There were the esthetics of the horror.
After Tiziano's works, the topic of The Furies comes up to Italy. And in Naples there is brilliant José de Ribera who is going to turn into the painter who will be able to reflect like nobody these esthetics of the horror. He could appropriate of this subject-matter and developed it with big ingenuity.
In addition to the pictures that the Prado Museum possesses, in the exhibition we can see a study to the etching of nostril and mouths that reflect this passion that was feeling Bank and that will study in depth the expression of the giant.
The Ixión of Bank is an example of the virtues in the representation of the pain. Also it is a question of the Tiziano's only Fury of whom visual testimony was not staying. It demonstrates a big skill at the time of the treatment of the human body submitted to extreme conditions, as well as the aptitude to transmit this pain to the spectator.
On the contrary the work of Salvator Rosa stretches these esthetics of the horror to the maximum (using a colloquial expression it might say, that Rose with its Prometeo, «has passed»). It enjoys itself in excess and its Ticio suffers, but the spectator more than pain what it perceives is a sensation near to the disgust on having seen so many víscera. It is said of Rose that in due time it showed that if You should Appeal he could paint the thunder, he had painted the scream.
The exhibition is comisariada for Miguel Falomir, chief of the Department of Italian and French Painting (hasta1700). Falomir also is the person in charge of the catalog, written entirely by him. It is a question of an exhaustive study with chapters devoted to Tiziano, to Maria de Hungría, to the artistic challenge who supposes the shape of these foreshortenings and the originality and imitation of the teachers in reference to The Furies.
Since the Prado Museum has being habitual about the sample, as well as the Foundation Friends of the Meadow have organized a series of activities.
An interesting video of the exhibition:
Filed file: Exhibitions
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