Exhibition in the Thyssen: Hyper-realism 1967 – 2012
Hyper-realism 1967 – 2012
«Say Parrasio to me: is not the painting an imitation of the visible objects? What do not you imitate by means of colors, the inlets and protrusions, the clear thing and the dark thing, the hard thing and the soft thing, the rough thing and the polished thing, youth and decrepitude?»
Sócrates to Parrasio
I free III Memorable of Jenofonte
The exhibition Hiperrrealismo 1967 – 2012 that is in the rooms of the Museum Thyssen-Bornemisza can be named like a very sweet exhibition. It is as if of a bonbons box it was talking each other (I look like to the very same Tom Hanks in movie Forrest Gum). Each of its works is a succulent, sweet morsel and much sabrosón. Nothing is necessary to know about movements, about styles, about avant-gardes, about painters, it is not necessary to have anything of that. It is possible to come with the mind in target to enjoy this magnificent exhibition. But, we are going to study in depth a little her for that readership who want to know something more and what is what they are going to be on having come to see Hiperrrealismo 1967 – 2012, the first anthology of the hyper-realism with the presence of the big teachers of the North Americans like Richard Este, John Baeder or Chuck Close (between others) and that will give continuity in Europe.
The sample the Institut für Kulturaustausch is organized for (Institute for the Cultural exchange of Germany) and comisariada for its director, Otto Letze, this retrospective assembles 50 works proceeding from diverse museums and particular collections. The Kunsthalle of Tübingen (Germany) has been the first scale of a trip that will take the sample to several European cities; in the Museum Thyssen‐Bornemisza of Madrid it will be able turn until June 9 and, later, he will travel to the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery (United Kingdom).
What is the hyper-realism?
It is possible to name like hyper-realism a pictorial tendency that evolves of radical form from the realistic painting. It arose in the United States at the end of the 60s. Its works constitute proposals a that tries to reflect the reality with the biggest possible veracity; with more loyalty (if it fits) and objectivity that the photo. Sometimes enlarging it to the maximum after everything taking the part of. A group of artists was painting with big realism a series of objects and pictures of the everyday life using for it the photo as base for the achievement of its pictures.
To review is convenient that the imitation of the nature has been a worry since the man is on the ground. In the caverns of the Paleolithic we find a reflex of what was happening in the exterior (with major or less fortune, but there the different animals were well identified). The anecdote reported by Plinio is very well-known, of the dispute between two painters for sees who was more skillful that it took place somewhere near 400 B.C. Zeuxis and Parrasio were competing for seeing he wants he was a better painter of the two. Zeuxis had painted in a wall a bunch of grapes that were turning out to be so natural, that the birds demolished towards them to peck them. Parrasio painted then a curtain real up to such a point, for which Zeuxis pleased with the verdict of the birds, asked its rival that the descorriera and the painting will prove to be. On having discovered its error, he admitted that the award belonged to its opponent, admitting that he, Zeuxis, had cheated only the animals, while Parrasio had cheated a painter.
Let's turn our hyperrealists. A precedent, more nearby, we can find it in a group of artists, also North Americans, who somewhere near the twenties realized a series of considered paintings like preciosistas (I please for detail, cubist composition and with futurist esthetics). We can see an example in the work of Charles Demuth, Aucassin and Nicolette, 1921. But undoubtedly those who marked a rule so much in this movement as in the future avant-gardes he was Pop Art (to see Magazine Atticus 20, pages 9 to 32) of the one who takes the iconography of the daily thing to create neutral and static images. These artists, of Pop Art, were pioneering in using the photos as legitimate instruments for its creation.
The hyperrealistic movement was announced in New York in the exhibition celebrated in the foundation Guggenheim of New York in 1966 and that was going for title «The photographic images». The assistants were going out for the same one between surprised and entertained before what many people were considering authentic photos. To this exhibition they continued others in different American states and it was not until 1972 when it gave the jump to the old continent. The consecration of the movement came from the hand of Documenta (something like universal exhibition of art) of Kassel in 1972. The hyperrealistic artists try to look for a realism, for a transcription of the reality, across its linens, emphasizing the care for the details (up to the exaggeration) and in the framing, both qualities inherent in the photo.
One of the characteristics of this singular movement is the use of the camera like an instrument inside the creative process. Sometimes the photo moves to the linen by means of the projection of its image in the same one or a system of plots. The result is a flat painting, without strokes that they emphasize, with a few brilliant and saturated colors that they evoke to the photos. These paintings also stand out for the thoroughness and obsession that is translated in an absence of the hand of the artist as for the application of the pigments (sometimes it goes so far as to grate the painting so that the stroke is not evident). The final result is a work which quality is similar to the photographic impression but whose process of making he has been very laborious and removed from the immediateness of the photo. It is necessary to bear in mind that a lot of works depart from the base of this photo, therefore, does it of a manipulated reality that is, in turn, altered on having spent this image to the linen. This is the main difference of the pictorial realism: to create a reality that has a somewhat unreal aspect.
Also it is known to this movement as a superrealism or fotorrealismo.
The pioneers of the Hyper-realism question, between other things, the authenticity and objectivity of the photographic images and as the photo has changed the way of seeing the things. At the beginning of 1960 on the Coast West North American, Rober Bechtle (1932) begins to realize the first hyperrealistic pictures, almost at the same time that Richard Estes (1932) works in New York realizing its characteristic works where it has great he attends the complex use of the surfaces that reflect the light. R. Be she is considered to be one of the big artists of the fotorrealismo. Other members of this first batch are Chuck Close (1940) who uses the human head as a main motive in its works (with help of a system of reticles it modifies the photographic information) and Audrey Flack (1931) the feminine representative of the group (one of its first works is Kennedy Motorcade, 1964, based on a very famous photo that was published in a magazine).
In this stage there will attract attention of them all kinds of vehicles that mean mobility that they bear a freedom high degree and that constitute a part very representative of the American society and how is seen herself. There are typical the works of the big trucks, the motor homes, the motorcars that today we would consider like retros but that are those who were circulating in this moment. Also they center its vision on the proper materials of these vehicles and it is frequent to see, therefore, bodyworks, sheens in the fenders or in the rims and varied reflexes that take place on having received the light.
This entry is part of an article that will develop in the next digital number (Magazine Atticus 22) that will be published at the end of May. In him we will show some of the best works of these artists who can be framed in three different generations.
I leave to you a video that will bring you a vision of the exhibition.
Filed file: Exhibitions
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