ON JANUARY 11, 1601: VALLADOLID, THE CAPITAL OF SPAIN
Monument to Felipe II in the square of san Pablo. Photo LJC
Valladolid, against any ideas that still circulate between nations with scarce interest to know the truth on past facts, was not the capital of Spain by chance and the election of moving the court to this city has excessive historical and cultural motives.
Not to fall down in a mere historical relation, we will quote only some important and significant strokes:
In the Xth century, liberated of the Moslem domain, it happens to be part of the County of Castile.
In the XIth century, Alfonso VI grants the dominion of the city to its valid one, the count of Saldaña and Carrión, Pedro Ansúrez. This one builds a palace for he and its wife, Mrs Eylo Alfonso, who does not survive. Also they construct the Collegiate church of Santamaría and the church of the Antigua, what grants to the city the town status. It stops being this way a rural establishment and knows its first important economic growth.
In the XIIIth century, king Alfonso VIII names court city, Fernando III is crowned king in the Main square and Alfonso X grants him the Real Jurisdiction. The city keeps on prospering thanks to fairs and economic privileges. Also it turns into possible head office of the courts and real residence. The University is founded, third more ancient than Spain.
In the XVth century, Juan II of Castile establishes its real and permanent residence in Valladolid. Its son, Enrique IV, was born in the ignominiously eliminated one by greed, House of the Door knockers, call like that for possessing right of asylum granted by Carlos I. Two centuries later it will be inhabited by don Rodrigo Calderón, to whom it did not serve the immunity of the building.
Town hall of Valladolid in the Biggest square. Photo: LJC
Elizabeth de Castilla and Fernando de Aragón marry secretly in the Palace of the Vivarium, later Real Hearing and Chancery. He installs the first printing to himself in the Monastery of the Meadow. The economic and cultural impulse is enormous with the flowering of the university and the creation of the biggest schools of Santa Cruz and San Gregorio.
XVIth century: in 1500 the court of the Inquisition is established definitely.
In 1518 the Spanish Parliament of Castile swears like king to Carlos I. After the War of the Communities, Valladolid stands out for its economic, judicial and political importance, turning into one of the most special capitals and the darling of the King, who settles in the beginning in the Palace of the Vivarium.
Due to the numerous stays of Carlos I in Valladolid, its secretary and right-hand man, don Francisco de los Cobos marries Mrs Maria de Mendoza and Convent of San Pablo chooses to build a proper residence in the court environment opposite to the Church. With the idea of conditioning its house like future real lodging, it hires the architect Luis de Vega. The project is growing and in the end one makes construct a palace with royal air, which seems to augur future events and inhabitants …
In 1527 future Felipe II is born. Here he lived through its first marriage with its cousin Maria Manuela of Portugal and the birth of its first son, Carlos. During the numerous campaigns in which it stayed away from Spain, its sisters were exercising the regency from Valladolid.
In 1550 the Controversy of Valladolid took place in the School of San Gregorio, on the rights of the natives of the New World, which presages future declarations on the human rights.
Palace of the Counts of Ribadavia, in the street You Distress. Photo: Doing Clack
In 1559, in May and October, the faith cars were celebrated against more famous heretics by its severity. Agustín de Cazalla, ancient Chaplain of Carlos I, adopted and expanded Lutheran ideas, what brother Domingo de Rojas or the archbishop Bartolomé de Carranza led him to the bonfire along with its family, a nourished group of nuns and followers, between whom they were. Felipe II afraid of the consequences that the expansion of the Protestant ideas could provoke, decides to annihilate them without considerations with a model punishment.
King Prudente gets upset very much for the heretics' nest in the city that saw him being born and there seems to be this one one of the motives that cause the election of the town of Madrid as headquarters of the court the same year.
One year and a few months later, Juan de Granada, in the street of the Costanilla, could not suffocate the fire of its silversmith's workshop one dawn of the day of san Mateo of 1561 and two days later they had burned for it 440 houses of the whole center of the city. It was doing a little time that Felipe II had moved to Madrid, stopping to its home area in frank depression, but not for it left, as it tried after receiving letters of Luis de Ossorio, major chief magistrate of the city, before a fire of such dimensions.
Felipe II entrusted the achievement of the new town-planning tracing to Francisco de Salamanca ordering the streets to be rectilinear and differentiated by unions. From here there was born a new way of seeing and of doing the cities: A Major big proportion square was created sesquilátera, then adopted, without flush, for Farrier in its project of the square of the Suburb, Major rebaptized square, of Madrid or for Churriguera in that of Salamanca, more than one century later. Also edges were placed in the houses, with brick or stone of Campaspero as fire-break.
The King granted to its native town the city title and obtained of pope Clemente VIII the creation of a diocese in 1595.
Especially, one tried to project an impression of strong city and of future. Valladolid was always a ground of good reception, although it fries for beginning and its inhabitants, born or settled down, they demonstrated a capacity of adaptation and a vocation of growth that it persuaded, forty years later to Felipe III.
King Piadoso, son of the previous monarch, across its valid one, Francisco Gómez de Sandoval and Red, I duke of Lerma, he became convinced of that that place was the suitable one to establish the new capital. They were fleeing of the scarce and dirty waters of Madrid, or this was the main excuse of the prime minister.
Also Valladolid was the center of a new artistic movement: the baroque, which so much there liked an esthete as that leader of so scarce moral tasting and so many diplomatic vision. Thanks to its peaces and agreements Spain possessed more territories that never and without scarcely blood spilling.
Air sight of Valladolid. Photo: Jason Hawkes
With these premises there was born the idea of a modern, beautiful and adaptable city, of hard and thick inhabitants, as it was the Españas then. And with the singularity of a river, the Esgueva, which was splitting into two on having entered the city and was ending in two branches in wealthy and clean Pisuerga. This abundant river was a witness of summer holidays of the third one of the Felipes, sometimes with fluvial bullfights. Also he was present at such prodigies like subaquatic immersions or you astonish of engineering like the created ones by Juan de Nates to raise water to the garden, first of the duke and after the King. It was then the only one of Spain with real stamp to cultivate chick-peas, and to water the beautiful gardens of its summer residence, the Palace of the Bank, today nonexistent thanks to the pillaging carried out by the count duke of Olive groves and its friend Velázquez and stopped destroying for painful Carlos III, beginning of the big ruin of Spain due to its abandonment of the empire to center on doing only of Madrid something more than a poblachón of La Mancha.
But the important thing of this is that Valladolid demonstrated to Spain and to the world the aptitude to be reborn of its ashes and to create on them a beautiful, place strong and worthy of the whole kingdom that was including territories in four continents acquaintances of that time and all this concluded with the capital decree of Spain of January 11, 1601.
Pilar Cañibano Gago
Carlos Ibañez Giralda